• RAKHIMOV Nodir Makhammatkulovich
  • TULANOV Bekzod Tulan o'g'li
  • SHAKHANOVA Shakhnoza Shavkatovna
  • ASLANOVA Lobar Melikmuradovna


Anorexia and malnutrition are the physiological response of the body to the development of cancer (i.e. activation of the immune system, increased energy consumption...).  Initially, it is believed that all these changes help the body fight tumor growth.  In this context, the effectiveness of anorexia treatment is related to several mechanisms.  Firstly, the patient's body is not activated and is not in search of food and thus saves energy, it also reduces the heat loss that can occur due to increased convection.  The stored temperature in this case is used by the body to fight the rapid growth of cancer.  Second, eating less during illness also reduces the intake of nutrients needed by cancer cells, as well as reducing the energy intake needed for digestion.  This effect of early anorexia is supported by a classic study in which force-feeding infected experimental mice resulted in increased mortality (1).  However, despite the benefits of early anorexia, prolonged anorexia compromises the body's defenses and makes recovery more difficult.


Murray MJ, Murray AB. Anorexia of infection as a mechanism of host defense. Am J Clin Nutr 1979; 32:593-596.

Bernstein IL. Taste aversion learning: a contemporary perspective. Nutrition 1999; 15:229-234.

Sutton LM, Demark-Wahnefried W, Clipp EC. Management of terminal cancer in elderly patients. Lancet Oncol 2003; 4:149-157.

DeWys WD, Begg C, Lavin PT, et al. Prognostic effect of weight loss prior to chemotherapy in cancer patients. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Am J Med 1980; 69:491-497.

Pirovano M, Maltoni M, Nanni O, et al. A new palliative score: a first step for the staging of terminally ill cancer patients. Italian Multicenter and Study Group on Palliative Care. J Pain Symptom Manage 1999; 17:231-239.

Maltoni M, Nanni O, Pirovano M, et al. Successful validation of the palliative prognostic score in terminally ill cancer patients. Italian Multicenter Study Group on Palliative Care. J Pain Symptom Manage 1999; 17:240-247.

Donnelly S, Walsh D. The symptoms of advanced cancer. Semin Oncol 1995; 22 (suppl. 3): 67-72.

Tisdale MJ. Cachexia in cancer patients. Nat Rev Cancer 2002; 2:862-871.

Walsh D, Rybicki L, Nelson KA, et al. Symptoms and prognosis in advanced cancer. Support Care Cancer 2002; 10:385-388.

Maltoni M, Pirovano M, Scarpi E, et al. Prediction of survival of patients terminally ill with cancer. Results of an Italian prospective multicentric study. Cancer 1995; 75:2613-2622.

Rakhimov M. Nodir, Khudayberdiyeva A. Shohista, Oripova R. Mehriniso, Shakhanova Sh. Shakhnoza. Practical recommendations for Nutritional support for cervical cancer // Journal of Biomedicine and Practice. 2023, vol. 8, issue 2, pp.224-230

Ravasco P, Monteiro-Grillo I, Vidal PM, Camilo ME. Cancer: disease and nutrition are key determinants of patients' quality of life. Support Care Cancer 2004; 12:246-252.

Laviano A, Meguid MM, Rossi Fanelli F. Cancer anorexia: clinical implications, pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies. Lancet Oncol 2003; 4:686-694.

Rossi Fanelli F, Cangiano C, Ceci F, et al. Plasma tryptophan and anorexia in human cancer. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 1986; 22:89-95.

Schwartz MW, Woods SC, Porte D Jr, et al. Central nervous system control of food intake. Nature 2000; 404:661-671.

Shakhanova Sh. Shakhnoza, Rakhimov M. Nodir. Aspects of sarcopenia syndrome in oncological practice: diagnosis and treatment (literature review) // Journal of Biomedicine and Practice. 2023, vol. 8, issue 3, pp. 406-417

Chance WT, Sheriff S, Moore J, et al. Reciprocal changes in hypothalamic receptor binding and circulating leptin in anorectic tumor-bearing rats. Brain Res 1998; 803:27-33.

Simons JP, Schols AM, Campfield LA, et al. Plasma concentration of total leptin and human lung-cancer-associated cachexia. Clin Sci 1997; 93:273-277.

Bing C, Taylor S, Tisdale MJ, et al. Cachexia in MAC 16 adeno-carcinoma: suppression of hunger despite normal regulation of leptin, insulin and hypothalamic NPY. J Neurochem 2001; 79:1004-1012.

Mantovani G, Maccio A, Mura L, et al. Serum levels of leptin and proinflammatory cytokines in patients with advanced-stage cancer at different sites. J Mol Med 2000; 78:554-561.

Inui A, Asakawa A, Bowers CY, et al. Ghrelin, appetite and gastric motility: the emerging role of the stomach as an endocrine organ. FASEB J 2004; 18:439-456.

Laviano A, Meguid MM; Inui A, et al. Therapy Insight: cancer anorexia-cachexia sindrome - when all you can eat is yourself. Nat Clin Pract Oncol 2005; 2:158-165.

Kahler A, Zimmermann M, Langhans W. Suppression of hepatic fatty acid oxidation and food intake in men. Nutrition 1999; 15:819-828.

Loftus TM, Jaworsky DE, Frehywot GL, et al. Reduced food intake and body weight in mice treated with fatty acid synthase inhibitors. Science 2000; 288:2379-2381.

Peluso G, Nicolai R, Reda E, et al. Cancer and anticancer therapy-induced modification on metabolism mediated by carnitine system. J Cell Physiol 2000; 182:339-350.

Makarenko IG, Meguid MM, Gatto L, et al.. Decreased NPY innervation of the hypothalamic nuclei in rats with cancer anorexia. Brain Res 2003; 961:100-108.

Marks DL, Ling N, Cone RD. Role of central melanocortin system in cachexia. Cancer Res 2001; 61:1432-1438.

Wisse BE, Frayo RS, Schwartz MW, et al. Reversal of cancer anorexia by blockade of central melanocortin receptors in rats. Endocrinology 2001; 142:3292-3301.

Plata-Salaman CR. Anorexia during acute and chronic disease. Nutrition 1996; 12:69-78.

Opara EI, Laviano A, Meguid MM, et al. Correlation between food intake and CSF IL-1 in anorectic tumor bearing rats. NeuroReport 1995; 6:750-752.

Laviano A, Gleason JR, Meguid MM, et al. Effects of intra-VMN mianserin and IL-1ra on meal number in anorectic tumor-bearing rats. J Investig Med 2000: 48:40-48.

Torelli GF, Meguid MM, Moldawer LL, et al. Use of recombinant human soluble TNF receptor in anorectic tumor-bearing rats. Am J Physiol 1999; 277:R850-R855.

Wang W, Lonnroth C, Svanberg E, et al. Cytokine and COX-2 protein in brain areas of tumor-bearing mice with prostanoid-related anorexia. Cancer Res 2001, 61:4707-4715.

Inui A. Cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome: are neuropeptides the key? Cancer Res 1999; 59:4493-4501.

Heisler LK, Cowley MA, Tecott LH, et al. Activation of central melanocortin pathways by fenfluramine. Science 2002, 297:609-611.

Shintani F, Kanba S, Nakaki T, et al. Interleukin-1beta augments release of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin in the rat anterior hypothalamus. J Neurosci 1993; 13:3574-3581.

Blaha V, Yang ZJ, Meguid MM, et al. Ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus is related to the development of cancer-induced anorexia: in vivo microdialysis study. Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove) 1998; 41:3-11.

Cangiano C, Cascino A, Ceci F, et al. Plasma and CSF tryptophan in cancer anorexia. J Neural Transm (Gen Sect) 1990; 81:225-233.

Ravasco P. Aspects of taste and compliance in patients with cancer. Eur J Oncol Nurs 2005; 9 (suppl. 2):S84-S91.

Inui A. Cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome: current issues in research and management. CA Cancer J Clin 2002; 52:72-91.

Shakhanova Sh. Shakhnoza, Rakhimov M. Nodir. Aspects of sarcopenia syndrome in oncological practice: diagnosis and treatment (literature review) // Journal of Biomedicine and Practice. 2023, vol. 8, issue 3, pp. 406-417

Loprinzi CL, Kugler JW, Sloan JA, et al. Randomized comparison of megestrol acetate versus dexamethasone versus fluoxymesterone for the treatment of cancer anorexia/cachexia treatment. J Clin Oncol 1999; 17:3299-3306.